On This Date In 1675During King Philip's War, Mary Rowlandson (c. 1637 – January 1711), a colonial American woman was captured by Native Americans and held for 11 weeks before being ransomed. After her release, she wrote a book about her experience,The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, considered a seminal American work in the literary genre of captivity narratives.
On This Date In 1763The Seven Years' War, a global conflict known in America as the French and Indian War, ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by France, Great Britain, and Spain. In the Treaty of Paris, France lost all claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French holdings overseas. The treaty ensured the colonial and maritime supremacy of Britain and strengthened the 13 American colonies by removing their European rivals to the north and the south. Fifteen years later, French bitterness over the loss of most of their colonial empire contributed to their intervention in the American Revolution on the side of the Patriots.
On This Date In 1846The members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had been persecuted for their beliefs ever since Joseph Smith founded the church in New York in 1830. Anti-Mormon prejudice proved virulent with the murder of Smith and his brother in June 1844. On this day in 1846, convinced the Mormons would never find peace in the United States, Smith's successor, Brigham Young, and 1600 Mormons of Nauvoo, Illinois, began a long westward migration that eventually brought them to the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah, part of the still wild territories of the Mexican-controlled Southwest.
On This Date In 1861Jefferson Davis, a former U.S. senator from Mississippi who served as U.S. secretary of war in the 1850s, received word he had been selected president of the new Confederate States of America. Delegates at the Confederacy's constitutional convention in Montgomery, Alabama, chose him for the job.
On This Date In 1862During the American Civil War, The Battle of Elizabeth City was fought on the Pasquotank River near Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Vessels of the U.S. Navy's North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, opposed by vessels of the Confederate Navy's Mosquito Fleet; the latter supported by a shore-based battery of four guns at Cobb's Point near the southeastern border of the town, were defeated by forces led by Major General Ambrose E. Burnside, known as the Burnside Expedition. The resulting Union victory included Elizabeth City, Cobb's Point, and its nearby waters, and the Confederate fleet captured, sunk, or dispersed.
On This Date In 1916As a result of bitter disagreements with President Woodrow Wilson over America's national defense strategies, Lindley M. Garrison resigned his position as the United States secretary of war. The main disagreement between Garrison and the president arose from the Wilson administration's long-term national defense plans and short-term U.S. military preparedness in light of the ongoing war in Europe. At the time, Wilson favored a policy of strict neutrality—he would be reelected later that year on a platform promising to keep America out of the war—and he objected to Garrison's belief that a full-time reserve army should be created as a foundation for national defense and, more immediately, for support in case the U.S. entered the European war. Assistant Secretary of War Henry Breckinridge also resigned his position out of loyalty to Mr. Garrison.
On This Date In 1927Mary Violet Leontyne Price, American operatic soprano, was born in Laurel, Mississippi. She was best known for the title role of Verdi'sAida. Born in the segregated Deep South, she rose to international fame during a period of racial change in the 1950s and 60s (Price debuted on Broadway in April 1952), and was the first African-American to become a leading prima donna at the Metropolitan Opera. Her successful career took her to leading opera houses around the world and brought eighteen Grammy awards as well as the Presidential Medal of Freedom.http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb10.html
On This Date In 1939Pope Pius XI (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, Pope from 1922 until his death on February 10, 1939, and sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on February 11, 1929, died of a third heart attack at age 81, only months before the outbreak of World War II. Pius XI chose for his tomb a spot in the Papal Grotto occupied by some of the Jacobite kings of England. They were moved to another location in the Grotto, however, when workers digging in the Grotto for Pius' tomb unearthed ancient archeological sites and tombs, included what is believed to be the tomb of St. Peter. Today it is called the Necropolis. Pius XI's tomb is just to the right as you enter the Grotto.http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7840303
On This Date In 1942During World War II, a Japanese submarine launched a brutal attack on Midway, a coral atoll used as a U.S. Navy base. It was the fourth bombing of the atoll by Japanese ships since the attack on Pear Harbor on December 7, 1941.
On This Date In 1957Laura Elizabeth Ingalls Wilder (February 7, 1867 – February 10, 1957). an American author who wrote theLittle Houseseries of books based on her childhood in a pioneer family, died in her sleep in her Mansfield farmhouse just three days after her 90th birthday.
On This Date In 1962Francis Gary Powers (August 17, 1929 – August 1, 1977), an American pilot whose Central Intelligence Agency U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission over Soviet Union airspace, causing the 1960U-2 incident, and subsequently convicted of espionage against the Soviet Union and sentenced to a total of 10 years in prison, was exchanged along with American student Frederic Pryor in a well publicized spy swap for Soviet KGB Colonel Vilyam Fisher, a Soviet colonel who was caught by the FBI and put in jail for espionage, at the Glienicke Bridge in Berlin, Germany.
On This Date In 1964Glenn Edward Lee Beck, American conservative radio host, vlogger, author, entrepreneur, political commentator and former television host, was born. He hosts the Glenn Beck Program, a nationally syndicated talk-radio show that airs throughout the United States on Premiere Radio Networks. He formerly hosted the Glenn Beck television program, which ran from January 2006 to October 2008 on HLN and from January 2009 to June 2011 on the Fox News Channel. Beck has authored six New York Times-bestselling books.
On This Date In 1965During The Vietnam War, Viet Cong guerrillas blew up the U.S. barracks at Qui Nhon, 75 miles east of Pleiku on the central coast, with a 100-pound explosive charge under the building. A total of 23 U.S. personnel were killed, as well as two Viet Cong. In response to the attack, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered a retaliatory air strike operation on North Vietnam called Flaming Dart II.
On This Date In 1966Ralph Nader, a young lawyer and the author of the groundbreaking book “Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile,” testified before Congress for the first time about unsafe practices in the auto industry.
On This Date In 1967The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution was ratified. It's purpose with succession to the Presidency establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. It supersedes the ambiguous wording of Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 of the Constitution, which does not expressly state whether the Vice President becomes the President, as opposed to an Acting President, if the President dies, resigns, is removed from office or is otherwise unable to discharge the powers of the presidency. The Twenty-fifth Amendment was adopted on February 23, 1967.
On This Date In 1970An avalanche crashed down on a ski resort in Val d'Isere, France. Approximately 100,000 cubic yards of snow came rushing down the mountain, killing 42 people, mostly young skiers. The snow was 100 yards high in some spots, and was the worst such incident in French history. French President Georges Pompidou declared it a national tragedy, and authorities ordered evacuations of other resorts in the region. This proved to be a wise move, as other avalanches followed in the next few days. In fact, the abandoned hotel at Val d'Isere was struck again two days later.
On This Date In 1972Dressed in a striking costume, his hair dyed red, rocker David Bowie launched his Ziggy Stardust stage show with the “Spiders from Mars”—guitarist Mick Ronson, bassist Trevor Bolder and drummer Mick Woodmansey—at the Toby Jug pub in Tolworth, London. The show was hugely popular, catapulting Bowie to stardom as he toured the UK over the course of the next six months and creating, as described by biographer David Buckley, a “cult of Bowie” that was “unique—its influence lasted longer and has been more creative than perhaps almost any other force within pop fandom.”
On This Date In 1978“Stained Class,” the fourth album by British heavy metal group Judas Priest, was released. A popular album in the band's catalogue, Stained Class showcased a more streamlined songwriting style. The production is crisper, clearer, and cleaner than any of their preceding albums. This is the only Judas Priest album to feature songwriting by all five members (one of Ian Hill's few contributions to the songwriting process for the band, and the sole contribution thereof by then-drummer Les Binks – the guitar riff for “Beyond the Realms of Death”). Following this album the band broke its songwriting team down to Rob Halford, K.K. Downing and Glenn Tipton, with occasional contributions solely by Tipton.
On This Date In 1978“Van Halen,” the eponymous debut album by American hard rock band Van Halen, was released. Recorded in 1977 and released in February 1978, it has sold over ten million copies in the United States alone and is one of the most successful debuts by a hard rock band. Along with1984, it gives Van Halen two original albums with Diamond status in sales.
On This Date In 1989Ronald H. Brown, a former Supreme Court lawyer and leader of the National Urban League, was elected chairman of the Democratic Party National Committee. He was the first African American to hold the top position in a major political party in the United States.
On This Date In 1992Former heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson, accused of raping 18-year-old beauty-pageant contestant Desiree Washington, was found guilty by an Indiana jury. The following month, Tyson was given a 10-year prison sentence, with four years suspended.
On This Date In 1996And after three hours, world chess champion Gary Kasparov lost the first game of a six-game match against Deep Blue, an IBM computer capable of evaluating 200 million moves per second. Man was ultimately victorious over machine, however, as Kasparov bested Deep Blue in the match with three wins and two ties and took home the $400,000 prize. An estimated 6 million people worldwide followed the action on the Internet.
On This Date In 2004“The College Dropout,” the debut album of American hip hop artist Kanye West, was released on Roc-A-Fella Records. It was recorded over a period of four years, beginning in 1999. Prior to the album's release, West had worked on Jay-Z'sThe Blueprint(2001), which showcased his style of melodic and soulful hip hop production. Produced entirely by West, The College Dropout also features contributions from musicians such as Jay-Z, John Legend, Ervin "EP" Pope, Miri Ben-Ari, Syleena Johnson, and Ken Lewis. Upon its release, The College Dropout became a massive commercial success, producing three top-ten singles and selling over 441,000 copies in its first week alone. The album has been widely considered a musical masterpiece, garnering “universal acclaim” by music critics, based on an aggregate score of 88/100 from Metacritic. At the 47th Grammy Awards in 2005, the album received a Grammy Award for Best Rap Album and a nomination for Album of the Year, and its single, “Jesus Walk,” won a Grammy for Best Rap Song.
On This Date In 2006The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, a winter multi-sport event, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. This marked the second time Italy hosted the Olympic Winter Games, the first being the VII Olympic Winter Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo in 1956. Italy also hosted the Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome in 1960. Turin was selected as the host city for the 2006 games in 1999.
On This Date In 2008Roy Richard Scheider (November 10, 1932 – February 10, 2008), an American actor best known for his role as police chief Martin Brody inJaws, as choreographer and film director Joe Gideon inAll That Jazz, and as detective Buddy Russo inThe French Connection, died from multiple myeloma at age 75. Scheider's final performance was released posthumously in the 2010 thrillerIron Cross. Scheider was nominated for two Academy Awards, a Golden Globe Award and a BAFTA Award over the course of his career.
On This Date In 2009The 2009 satellite collision, the first accidental hypervelocity collision between two intact artificial satellites in Earth orbit, occurred 789 kilometres (490 mi) above the Taymyr Peninsula in Siberia, when Iridium 33 and Kosmos-2251 collided at a speed of 11.7 kilometres per second (7.3 mi/s), or approximately 42,120 kilometres per hour (26,170 mph), faster than escape velocity on Earth. As of December 2011, many pieces of debris are in a steady decay towards Earth, expected to burn up in the atmosphere within one or two years.
On This Date In 2010Former Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich pleaded not guilty to revised corruption charges. He went on to say he wanted jurors to be allowed to hear all of the audio recordings — some 500 hours’ worth — that federal authorities secretly made of his telephone conversations.http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/11/us/11blago.html
Happy BirthdayLeontyne Price (1927), Robert Wagner (1930), Roberta Flack (1937), Howard Mudd (1942), Vernor Vinge (1944), Mark Spitz (1950), Robert Iger (1951), George Stephanopoulos (1961), Glenn Beck (1964), Daryl Johnston (1966), Laura Dern (1967), Laurie Dhue (1969), Lisa Marie Varon (1971), Elizabeth Banks (1974), and Emma Roberts (1991).
RIPWilliam Allen White (1868 – 1944), Jimmy Durante (1893 – 1980), Dame Judith Anderson (1897 – 1992), Bertolt Brecht (1898 – 1956), John Farrow (1904 – 1963), Georges Pire (1910 – 1969), Peter Allen (1944 – 1992), and Cliff Burton (1962 – 1986).
Thank you, James Allen:
A man has to learn that he cannot command things, but that he can command himself; that he cannot coerce the wills of others, but that he can mold and master his own will: and things serve him who serves Truth; people seek guidance of him who is master of himself.
Before complaining that you are a slave to another, be sure that you are not a slave to self. Look within;...You will find there, perchance, slavish thoughts, slavish desires, and in your daily life and conduct slavish habits. Conquer these; cease to be a slave to self, and no man will have the power to enslave you.
Dream lofty dreams, and as you dream, so you shall become. Your vision is the promise of what you shall one day be; your ideal is the prophecy of what you shall at last unveil.
The more tranquil a man becomes, the greater is his success, his influence, his power for good. Calmness of mind is one of the beautiful jewels of wisdom.
Mind is the Master-power that molds and makes, and Man is Mind, and evermore he takes the Tool of Thought, and shaping what he wills, brings forth a thousand joys, a thousand ills-He thinks in secret and it comes to pass; Environment is but his looking-glass.
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If a man will understand how intimately, yea, how inseparably, self-control and happiness are associated, he has but to look into his own heart, and upon the world around,...Looking upon the lives of men and women, he will perceive how the hasty word, the bitter retort, the act of deception, the blind prejudice and foolish resentment bring wretchedness and even ruin in their train.